The Big Five Personality Traits
The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five-factor model is a statistical analysis applied to personality survey data through language where aspects of personality become apparent. For example, someone described as conscientious is more likely to be described as "always prepared" rather than "messy". This theory uses descriptors of common language and suggests five broad dimensions commonly used to describe the human personality and psyche. The five factors are:
- Openness to experience (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious)
- Conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless)
- Extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved)
- Agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. challenging/detached)
- Neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident)
- Honesty (sincere, honest, humble, faithful, loyal, modest/unassuming vs. sly, deceitful, greedy, pretentious, hypocritical, pompous) (Sixth Dimension of Hexaco Model)
There are a number of correlated factors. For example, extraversion is said to include such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity, and positive emotions .
Family life and the way someone was raised will also affect these traits. Studies and research have shown that about half of the variation between individuals results from their genetics and half from their environments. Researchers have found conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience, and neuroticism to be relatively stable from childhood through adulthood.
Another study explored by Gerard Saucier and Fritz Ostendorf explored each domain's facet structure through word studies. Each facet is a specific and unique aspect of a broader personality trait. They found a total of 18 facets, or "subcomponents," of the Big Five. These are:
- Neuroticism: Irritability, Insecurity, Emotionality
- Extraversion: Sociability, Unrestraint, Assertiveness, Activity-Adventurousness
- Openness to Experience: Intellect, Imagination-Creativity, Perceptiveness
- Agreeableness: Warmth-Affection, Gentleness, Generosity, Modesty-Humility
- Conscientiousness: Orderliness, Decisiveness-Consistency, Reliability, Industriousness